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Predict/Locate/Add/Note (PLAN)

The Predict-Locate-Add-Note (PLAN) graphical organizer helps students summarize the content of a reading selection. This instrument incorporates a number of reading and learning strategies into a single note-taking tool.

Using the PLAN organizer students . . .

  • Predict selection content based on prior knowledge and experiences.

  • Locate familiar and unfamiliar words and concepts.

  • Add new information to prior knowledge.

  • Note how new information can be applied to everyday tasks.

Steps to Predict-Locate-Add-Note (PLAN):

  1. Select a reading passage with a well-defined central concept and distribute copies to students.

  2. Have students quickly scan the document and make predictions about its content from titles and key words.

  3. Provide students with a graphical organizer (see below) and ask them to create a "map" of their predictions. The top of the map should contain a prediction of the overall content of the document. Each "arm" of the map should contain predictions about specific content items and "evidence" supporting these predictions (key words or phrases from the selection).

  4. Have students place an identification mark (an asterisk or question mark) by any unfamilar or unknown information listed in their predictions. At this point, the "map" should clearly distinguish between known and unknown information.

  5. Next, have students carefully read the selection and evaluate their predictions. Students should "adjust" their "map" to better reflect their close reading of the document. Special care should be taken to add new information learned while reading.

  6. Finally, challenge the students to describe specific applications for this newly gathered information in "real world" tasks.

Learn More:

  • Caverly, D., Mandevelle T., & Nicholson, S. (November, 1995) "PLAN: A study -reading strategy forinformational text." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 190-199.

  • Lenski, Susan D., Wham, Mary Ann, & Johns, Jerry L. (1999). Reading and learning strategies for middle and high school students. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

  • PLAN: Predict/Locate/Add/Note

  • PLAN Strategy


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